MLN: Modern Language Notes is an academic journal founded in 1886 at the
Johns Hopkins University, where it is still edited and published, with the
intention of introducing continental European literary criticism into American
scholarship. One issue is devoted to each of the four languages of concern. The
fifth issue focuses on comparative literature. The general editor is Dr. Rainer
Nägele of Johns Hopkins University.
The journal is published five times each year in January (Italian), March
(Hispanic), April (German), September (French), December (Comparative
literature). Circulation is 1,173 and the average length of an issue is 240
A modern language is any human language that is currently in use.
The term is used in a language education context (in high schools, secondary
schools, colleges and universities) to distinguish between languages such as
German and French, which are spoken by millions of people and are learned for
their usefulness as tools of communication or lingua franca, and classical
languages (also called "dead languages") such as Latin, Attic Greek and
Classical Chinese, which are studied for their cultural or linguistic value.
The teaching of modern languages
Modern languages are taught extensively around the world; see second language
acquisition. English is taught as a second or foreign language in most
countries; see English language learning and teaching.
All children learn their native language in East Asia countries, and all
subjects are taught in their native language except for English lessons, with
the exception of Singapore, in which English is taught as a first language.
English is the most studied foreign language in the People's Republic of China,
Japan, South Korea and Taiwan (Republic of China). In PR China, English is a
required language beginning with the third grade, although the quality of
instruction varies greatly and most Chinese citizens do not speak it well. The
study of English is also required in India, where it is used for official
communication. In Nepal, almost all subjects are taught in English, except for
In Malaysia, the Malay and English languages are taught as compulsory languages
from the first year of primary school with the exception of publicly funded
vernacular schools (known as national type schools). In the latter, either
Mandarin or Tamil are taught as additional compulsory languages. In
non-vernacular schools, all subjects with the exception of the sciences and
mathematics are taught in Malay. In vernacular schools, all subjects with the
exception of the sciences and mathematics are taught in the primary language
that is used in the respective schools. The sciences and mathematics are taught
in English although some Mandarin vernacular schools have dispensation to also
teach those subjects in Mandarin concurrently.
Middle East and North Africa
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Language study in the Middle East and North Africa varies from one country to
another, usually depending on the foreign nation that colonized or occupied the
country. For instance, in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, French is the most
widely-studied language besides the native Arabic, while in Egypt and the Gulf
countries (such as the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Oman), English is the
primary supplementary language. The teaching of languages other than Arabic is
uncommon in some countries, such as Iraq, the Palestinian Authority, Saudi
Arabia, Syria, and Yemen. In these countries, English and other foreign
languages tend to be offered as subjects only in certain, wealthier schools.
All children learn Arabic in school. In addition, English is mandatory beginning
with the fourth grade (9 years of age). Another language is mandatory for the
last two years of high school (17-18 years), with French and German being most
commonly learned. As Egypt's economy depends mainly on tourism, many modern
languages are taught and spoken there. That is for basic school in Egypt, but it
also depends on which schools students attend. For instance, in French schools
in Egypt students learn Arabic, French and then English later on. And in German
schools in Egypt students learn Arabic, German and then English and probably
some basic French as well.
In all European Union school systems, it is mandatory to study at least one
foreign language at some stage during the school career; there is a tendency for
this to start earlier, even in the first year of primary school. Additional
languages can be chosen as an optional subject. The most common foreign language
chosen is increasingly English (the most popular first foreign language in 23 of
the 25 EU Member States which do not have English as the language of
instruction), followed by French and German. Some 90% of pupils learn English as
a foreign language, whether the choice of language is obligatory or parental.
Teaching is largely provided by generalist teachers in primary school and by
specialists in middle and secondary schools.
All children of the United Kingdom learn English at school. In Wales, all
children at state schools learn Welsh until age 14; they will be taught in the
medium of Welsh or learn Welsh as a second language depending on where they
In addition, Modern Foreign Languages is a compulsory component in the state
education system. At least one language (often French or German, and
occasionally Spanish or Italian) is studied until the end of Key Stage 3.
Particular schools may require younger students to study additional languages,
and they may be given the option to continue these. Schools are required to
teach a program of languages according to local and national guidelines. From
2010, all primary-school pupils in Key Stage 2 (aged 7 - 11) will be entitled to
some teaching of a modern foreign language. English is taught to immigrant
adults and youths as necessary.
All children learn English at school in the United States. In public school
districts containing large numbers of immigrant children, bilingual education,
in which instruction is initially largely taught in the student's native
language, may be offered, though this practice is controversial.
American students are increasingly recommended (and at times required) to study
a foreign language course in high school level, and often also at the university
level. In addition, a growing number of school districts are offering
foreign-language courses at the elementary and middle school levels, usually on
an optional basis.
In 2002, the most studied foreign languages at American institutes of higher
education in 2002 were, in order of popularity: Spanish, French, German,
Italian, American Sign Language, Japanese, Chinese, and Russian .
All children learn Spanish at school. They begin to learn the English at the age
of six in pre-school, in some other schools like San Jose De Tarde in Caracas
(the capital) all the children begin to learn French and English at the same
time when they are promoted from pre-school to middle school. Also in
distributed points of the country are little schools for learning Chinese
(because of the growing number of Chinese immigrants) for all ages starting from
the age of eight.
International auxiliary languages are by definition not associated with a
particular country or geographic region. Esperanto is probably the most well
known. Interlingua, a popular and rapidly growing auxiliary language, is spoken
mainly in Northern and Eastern Europe and in South America, with substantial
numbers of speakers in Central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and Japan. Interlingua
was developed with the goal of being widely international and easy to learn.
Other auxiliary languages include Occidental and Latino Sine Flexione
RuneScape has often been one of
the top massive online role playing games. It is a unique game. But, with a
unique game, comes unique players. Players get bored, and then try to develop
cheats....autos or bots that will help them achieve success in their beloved
games of Runescape 2.
RuneScape is a virtual world which
is divided into two part: Members Areas and Non-Members areas. People who pay to
play (p2p), receive access to the special areas. They also have access to the
free areas. The members' places are much larger, offer "better" items for the
gameplay of rs2, and much, much more. The character that you create when you
first start playing runescape, moves around the game on foot; either by running,
or walking. Players are challenged to their utmost skills by fighting new
monsters, completing difficult quests, and manipulating marketing. As Runescape
2 is an RPG (Role playing game), there is no set path a person must take to play
rs. They can choose what to do, and when, whether it be training their
money-making skills, or fighting another player. Players usually interact with
each other by chatting through public chat, or private chat.Internet
Junction For Gamers, Runescape Market and More IJFG.COM IJFG.com was a
runescape 2 based site. They have now, however, taken another look....
Of course the king of all game
cheating websites is
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The master of massive multiplayer
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Trik.com; this site is one of the best today. The forum section,
Trik.com forum, originally came from IJFG.com (Internet Junction For
Gamers) , which was one of the best websites that discussed various gamers'
issues. The full name was Internet Junction For Gamers, Runescape Market and
More. This site had Jokes, Pranks, RuneScape and other cool games. RuneScape is
set in a medieval fantasy world, similar to "Guild Wars" or "EverQuest," where
players control character representations of themselves. As with most MMORPG,
there is no overall objective or end to the game. Players explore, form
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Trik.com continues IJFG.com's
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With the rising popularity of
commercial MMORPG games came the desire from ardent players of these games to
run their own servers beside the ones run by the game's creator. Since the
original server software is not usually available, the behavior of the server
has to be re-engineered. This can be done by analyzing the data stream with the
original server, or by disassembling and analyzing the client which is
Ultima Online was one of the first
large MMORPGs. Due to its openness in implementation, server emulators arose
very quickly, even during the beta stage of development. The destination to
which the client connects was changeable by simply editing a text file. In beta
stage the client-server data stream was not encrypted yet. The term server
emulator became known through Ultima Online server reimplementation such as UOX,
which was the pioneer. Many forks and reimplementations followed UOX, because
its source code was released under the GNU General Public License relatively
early. RunUO is today the most widely used UO-server emulator. After RuneScape
implemented anti-cheating measures, many gamers left and started their own
private servers. The best place to discuss the private server is at
Trik- The Master of Private Server.
Another useful site is
Web ruwb.com . This site is about more serious RuneScape gold trading,
account exchange, gold for real life cash and many services. It includes tips on
how to avoid getting lured/scammed while using the marketplace. For programming,
visual basics, java, C/C++, scar and all other languages such as PHP, HTML, ASP,
Delphi. There are also sections for graphics talents, plus many cool videos and
A defining moment in internet
gaming history was when a group of gamers called (hygo 7) decided to start an
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- General Information: